Hypersomnia is defined as excessive daytime sleepiness and can be secondary or primary. Secondary hypersomnia has identifiable causes such as medications, hormonal imbalance, and medical and/or psychiatric disorders.
The diagnosis of hypersomnia begins with history and the examination and metabolic workup. Some patients might require imaging of the brain. A sleep study followed by a multi-sleep latency test (MSLT), where the patient is kept at the sleep lab and allow to take four to five naps to determine the onset of the sleep and if REM sleep occurs during any of these naps. MSLT used to diagnose primary hypersomnia and narcolepsy.
The treatment of hypersomnia depends on the cause and the type of hypersomnia. If it is primary or if the patient continues to experience EDS then medications can be used including Armodafinil (Nuvigil) and Modafinil (Provigil). Alternative medications include stimulants (Adderall and Ritalin and others). If secondary then treating the cause is required.