The brain is housed within the skull and surrounded with a thick connective tissue called the dura connecting the brain to the skull. Essentially the brain is hanging and floating within the skull, but tightly stabilized. If a person suffers a direct or indirect blow to the head, from an assault, motor vehicle accident, or a fall, the brain is shaken within the skull. This results in disturbances in the brain at a microscopic level. These disturbances affect the connection between the brain cells and may result in a group of symptoms such as headache, loss of consciousness and/or dizziness.
IIf the symptoms persist after the injury then it becomes PCS. Symptoms are vast and can include, headache, dizziness, lightheadedness, vertigo and sleep, memory and mood disturbances. The symptoms can last from days to months. The diagnosis of concussion and PCS is based on the history and clinical picture since imaging and other diagnostic modalities are usually negative.
The treatment of concussion and PCS is supportive; done by treating the symptoms. Medications can be used to treat headaches, insomnia or other symptoms. Social support is essential in the treatment and reassurance that the symptoms are not going to last indefinitely and will slowly improve.