RLS is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one’s limbs to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs, but can affect the arms, torso, and even phantom limbs. Although symptoms are more common at night but they can occur during the day especially during inactivity. RLS can be associated with other disorders including iron deficiency, diabetes, lower back pain, rheumatoid arthritis, B12 deficiency, frequent blood donation, antidepressant medications, alcohol, and caffeine.
The diagnosis of RLS is based on criteria including compelling urges to move the legs, occurring at rest, and improves with activity and walking. Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is associated with RLS, typically diagnosed with a sleep study.
The approach to treating the RLS includes correcting the metabolic abnormality such as iron deficiency, thyroid disease, diabetes and others then treat with medications. The pharmacological treatment includes dopamine agonist (Requip, Mirapex), carbidoba/levodopa (Sinemet), anticonvulsants (gabapentin), opioids (hydrocodone, oxycodone,..) . If PLMD is also present with RLS, Klonazepam is considered.